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Word Level Reading

This Module is comprised of seven sessions.

Site: Colorado Department of Education - LMS
Course: OD-Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties
Book: Word Level Reading
Printed by: Guest user
Date: Saturday, 1 October 2022, 6:44 PM

Module 4 Word Level Reading is comprised of 7 sessions. 

Session Titles

4.1 Challenges of Word-Level Reading

4.2 Word Reading Development

4.3 How Poor Phonological Skills Hinder Word Reading

4.4 Orthographic Mapping

4.5 Fluency

4.6 English Learners and Written Word Learning

4.7 Understanding Word-Reading Difficulties

Other Information

Please use the left pointing arrow and right pointing arrowblack previous & next arrows or Table of Contents located to the right to navigate through the module. 



4.1 The Challenges of Word-Level Reading


Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 
    • Describe the difference between word identification and word recognition
    • Identify the challenges involved in developing word-level reading

View

Watch the session below. 

*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • Word identification and word recognition can be distinguished from one another
  • Word recognition assumes  you already know a word while word identification does not presume that
  • Skilled readers have a large pool of know words they draw from when they read, known as a sight-word vocabulary or orthographic lexicon

Reflect & Connect

Consider ways you and the others have tried to get students to remember the words they read. How well have those efforts worked? Did they work better with some students than others?




4.2 Word Reading Development


Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 

  • Describe why phonological skills are central to learning to read an alphabet-based writing system
  • Identify the development levels of phonological skills and word-reading skills and how they each contribute to the development of each other

View

Watch the session below.


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • Alphabetic writing systems like English are based upon phonemes in spoken language
  • Phonological skills underlie each aspect of word-reading development
  • Exposure to an alphabetic writing system promotes phoneme-level skills in typically developing readers

Reflect & Connect

How might the different approaches to reading instruction inform your current work? What might you need to considers when communicating about reading instruction with families with colleagues?



4.3 How Poor Phonological Skills Hinder Word Reading


Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 
    • Understand why students with phonological-core deficit make very limited progress in word-level reading
    • Identify how students with the phonological-core deficit may display different patterns depending on their level of development and instructional opportunities

View

Watch the session below. 


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • Alphabetic writing systems like English require efficient access to the phonemes in spoken language
  • Individuals with the phonological-core deficit do not naturally develop the phonological/phonemic skills they need to be efficient readers as a result of being taught an alphabetic writing system
  • Different patterns or “symptoms” of word-reading difficulties can be the result of the level of phonological development and the nature of the instructional opportunities


Reflect & Connect

How does the interpretation of word-level reading difficulties support or not support your previous understandings of reading difficulties?



4.4 Orthographic Mapping


Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 

  • Explain the process of orthographic mapping
  • Identify the two skills needed for the efficient orthographic mapping
  • Understand how orthographic mapping is important to establishing sight vocabulary


View

Watch the session below. 


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • Orthographic learning results from an intersection between sounds and letters in written words, not by any visual memory process. 

    • Orthographic mapping is the mental process used to store words for instant, effortless retrieval- it generates the sight vocabulary
    • Orthographic mapping connects what is known and already well-established in memory (a word’s pronunciation) with that the reader needs to remember (a word’s spelling)
      • The process is implicit, so the reader typically is not consciously  “trying” to remember; the connection forming processes happens “behind the scenes”

  • The critical skills needed for orthographic mapping are letter-sound proficiency and phonemic proficiency

    • Students with these skills develop reading skills fairly easily
    • Students without these skills struggle in reading


Reflect & Connect

What are the critical aspects of orthographic mapping and how do you think this information may inform our instructional decisions?



4.5 Fluency


Learning Intentions

Participants will be able to:

  • Describe the nature and importance of word-level reading fluency
  • Describe the basis for reading fluency
  • Understand why many fluency-related efforts fail, and what can be done about that

View

View Session 5 below.


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • Fluency involves fast, accurate, and expressive reading
  • Conventional views about fluency are not consistent with more recent research on reading development
  • Reading practice, per se, has limited benefits for students with fluency problems
  • Fluency is best understood as a byproduct of the size of a student’s sight vocabulary
  • Efforts to boost fluency should be directed toward helping students build their sight vocabularies by being efficient orthographic mappers
  • Reading practice is the only way to develop reading skills when students are good orthographic mappers


Reflect & Connect

How has your perspective been changes, if at all, based upon these ideas about fluency? How might your teaching differ?



Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 

  • Identify the challenges faced by English Learners
  • Describe the promise of teaching English Learners to Read
  • Develop confidence regarding teaching English Learners word-level reading skills

View

watch the session below.


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 


Summary

  • English Learners face many challenges in school
  • Word-Level reading is less challenging than reading comprehension
  • Skills acquired in one language can be applied to the new language
  • Phonological skills are roughly “transferable” from language to language
  • Early on, ELs may function like hyperlexics
  • As higher-level language skills grow, reading comprehension increases

Reflect & Connect

How are EL’s similar to native speakers in regards to the way they acquire word-level reading skills in English?



Learning Intentions

After viewing this module session participants will be able to: 

  • Describe why some children struggle in reading
  • Explain why some students have a limited sight vocabulary
  • Understand and explain why some approaches to reading work better than others

View

watch the session below.


*Please see the Transcripts resource folder located in Module 0 for a text copy of the transcript from this video. 

Summary

  • Word-Level reading skills are based upon phonological/phonemic skills
  • Poor access to phonemes in spoken words negatively affects reading development
  • Such difficulties affects phonic development, sight word acquisition, and fluency
  • ELs generally respond well to high-quality word-level reading instruction
  • Intervention and instruction that is consistent with a scientific understanding of reading has far greater outcomes than intervention and instruction that is inconsistent with research

Reflect & Connect

How has your understanding of various aspects of word reading development changed as a result of this module? How might your thoughts on reading instruction change?